The oldest remains of human presence on the island are found at the west coast and date back to the period of Poliochni in Limnos. Remains of an ancient settlement can be spotted on the hill of Agios Minas and at the homonymous chapel. At the region of Alonitisi at the site called Agios Alexios, you will find remains of a prehistoric settlement of the Early Bronze Age (3rd millennium b.C.) and parts of an ancient necropolis are located at the area of Evraiki. Ancient retaining walls were spotted close to the cemetery and Hellenistic graves were revealed near the harbour.
At the south part of the island the monument of Nikos Sialmas is found on the homonymous cape (former Trypiti), accompanied by a sign with the Laconic phrase “Molon lave” meaning “come and take them”. The 1st lieutenant of the Hellenic Airforce lost his life after the fall of his aircraft at the sea area south of Agios Efstratios on 18 June 1992 while defending the national airspace.